In this concluding chapter, I draw some of the book’s many different thematic threads together by highlighting the idea of improvisation. I suggest that the core narrative of most jazz-based advertising uses improvisation to knit together crucial skeins of the fabric of consumer capitalism—freedom of expression and freedom of choice. By framing material acquisition in the sound and language of jazz performance, the moral of the jazz advertising story reaffirms that consumption itself can be a kind of expressive improvisation: consumer capitalism invites us to select freely and creatively from an infinitely variable panoply of commodity choices in order to express the innermost reality of our identity, just as a mythic jazz musician might draw liberally upon an unfathomably varied aesthetic palette to express some otherwise-inexpressible truth about himself and his community. What’s more, it is an expressive modality that seems to override the tawdry, mundane questions of commerce and economics, instead ostensibly accessing real, authentic cultural truth. Needless to say, this improvisation-consumption analogy is deeply problematic and ignores the nuance and complexity of both improvisation and consumption; nevertheless, it is this kind of analogy that provides the kind of narrative and meaning that (as Max Weber suggests) human beings require to embrace consumption as a viable kind of self-expression, and thereby to sustain the all-important spirit of capitalism.